The three decades before the American Civil War were an age of idealism, romanticism, and philosophical transcendentalism. But the Civil War wrought a great change in the American scene. Industrialism mushroomed almost overnight; it had transformed practices of agriculture, and had encouraged a heedless exploitation of our natural resources. America became industrial-minded, business-minded. What the American people demanded from their industrialists and financiers was practical results. It was not long before a philosophical method came to reflect the qualities of the American character. Practical, democratic, opportunistic, individualistic, spontaneous and hopeful, the philosophical method of pragmatism was accurately adapted to the American temper-ament.