Space has an “eternally problematic” character. This was said originally of the concepts of space running through the ages, but it would seem to apply equally well to the concept of space in the works of Emanuel Swedenborg. In the Writings, the concept seems simple enough: Space in the natural world, but no space in the spiritual world. But when this seemingly simple concept is applied to the doctrine of discrete degrees and the creation of the natural world, this concept of space becomes “problematic” indeed; for how can space arise from a collection or heap of non-spatial substances ? How can spatial matters be created by the congregation or conglobation of substances which in themselves have no spatial qualities whatsoever? The more the non-spatial nature of the spiritual world is emphasized, the more serious is this difficulty.