This essay is a study of the history of 18th century American religionfrom a New Church Perspective. The particular focus is the change in itsdoctrine of salvation (Soteriology) as the century progressed. There havebeen many, many studies of eighteenth century America and also quite afew on colonial American religion. However, I am unaware of any whichtake as its central problem the question of doctrinal change during thisperiod. They have focused instead on the traditional areas of historicalanalysis, i.e., social structure, economic changes, struggles for politicalpower and ideological conflicts. While these are vital areas of concern theyare not my primary interest here. My primary purpose in this essay is tobring to the fore the theological changes occurring in Reformed Protestantismin America in the context of the Last Judgment (1757) and thefounding of the New Church (1770). I believe these changes are essential inunderstanding those times, but also that they are pivotal in explaining thesecular changes simultaneously occurring. There seems to be good reasonto believe that in an intensely religious age, profound changes in theperceived conditions of eternal salvation would have a fundamental impacton human action. They would have a dynamic impact on all areas ofsymbolic life.