The New Philosophy Vol 62 No 3, July-September 1959
What constitutes reality? People in general naively take for granted that the objects of their experience are real because they are material, fixed and permanent, and because, being independent of the human mind, they exhibit these characteristics whether or not they are being experienced. Yet it is well known that the same object appears quite differently to different people, and even to the same person at different times. Which of these appearances, then, is the real one?
I have now come to the conclusion that if the laws of creation only had the effect of imposing direction on the laws of conservation and of least action, they would not suffice to explain all the phenomena. I still argue that this effect exists. We must, however, in addition allow for creative causation, i.e. deeper levels of purposive causation, being able to bring about the transfer, conversion or transmutation of substance and of energy from one stratum of reality to another.